CLM Enterprise, LLC
Partner to Auburn Technical
Copyright © 2010-2020 Charles L. McPherson
Charles McPherson, Ph.D.
Quality Management Systems
Human Performance Technology
research and practice focuses on the science of human performance support.
As a practitioner, my goal is to design, implement, and improve systems that
facilitate human accomplishment within organizations. It is my belief that
people who are willing to work have a desire to do their jobs the right way,
and a significant proportion of these people look for ways to improve their
performance. Flawed systems can obscure exactly what is the right way to do
a job. If procedures and processes are not articulated and made explicit,
performance measurement and evaluation can be difficult to impossible. More
often than not, such systems result in an excessive amount of rework,
corrective actions, and discouraged employees. This is where the science of
human support can help by informing the application of human performance
technology to leverage human potential and achieve desired objectives.
Approach. In his forward to the first edition of the Handbook of Human Performance
Technology, Thomas Gilbert explained that “If we get the three I’s right
— information, incentives, and instructional design
— we will have 95 percent of the job.”
But more than that, I believe that by getting the three I’s right, we as
researchers and practitioners solve performance problems that ultimately,
improve the human condition. With each success, an incremental step is made
toward making the world a better place to live, and that is what makes it
all worth while.
Research. As a researcher, I am interested in how web-based interventions such as
knowledge management, instruction, and job aides impact job performance.
Moreover, I am interested in how program evaluators form models for
evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions. I am currently doing
research in the area of program evaluation with colleagues at the
University of South Alabama.
Practice. As a practitioner, I am a
self-employed management systems consultant and owner of CLM
Enterprise, LLC. I have been an active partner with the
University Technical Assistance Center and the Alabama
Technology Network for over eighteen years. Overall I have 33 years
of experience in developing and implementing quality management
systems in the manufacturing and service sectors. In accomplishing
this work, my primary job focus is program evaluation and the
design, development, and implementation of management systems,
training programs, and human performance support systems for the
realization of products and services in education, business, and
industry. For management systems, my practice has focused on design,
development, and implementation of quality management systems for
ISO 9001, ISO 14001 (environmental), IATF-16949 (automotive), SAE
AS9100 and SAE AS9110 (aerospace), FAA-PMA, and FAA FAR Part 145
Subpart B for domestic repair stations. I am licensed as an A&P
(Airframe and Powerplant) mechanic by the FAA.
Methods. I employ a variety of tools and
techniques in design and development tasks for management systems
and interventions for helping people achieve desired performance
goals. I have provided below a brief sample of some of the tools and
techniques I employ. Click each icon below to open the full
||Job Task Analysis
||The job task analysis
is accomplished to identify the specific activities that people do when
accomplishing a task. I prepare the task analysis by interviewing and
observing people who perform the task. The job task analysis is a critical
part of making informal undocumented processes explicit. Once I know what
actions are involved in accomplishing a given task, I document them
along with the purpose of the task, the scope, who is responsible, and the
resources needed. To develop a formal training module for the job task, I
determine what people have to know to do the job. Using this information, I
perform an instructional content analysis and prepare a learning task map.
||Learning Task Map
||The learning task map
may be prepared from the job task analysis. The learning task map is a very
useful tool for graphically depicting the identified instructional content
for training. With this tool in hand, I interface with client subject matter
experts and client management to ensure that goals and objectives meet
expectations and are suitable for achieving the desired performance. The
learning task map is used in preparing a formal design and development plan
for developing instruction.
||Formative Evaluation Plan
||I prepare a
Formative Evaluation Process Map to depict the formative evaluation process
as it relates to the phases of design and development activities that I
establish for an instructional design project. In my practice I want to make
sure that formative evaluations will effectively verify that the outputs
of the design and development process meet the instructional product design
and development inputs. I conduct these evaluations concurrently with
the design and development process. Data collected will be used to: verify
conformity to specified design requirements (identified by the client and
stakeholders), identify deficiencies and weaknesses, identify areas needing
corrective actions, and make recommendations for improvement.
||For computer-based and Web-based instruction, I
incorporate video as well as still images to enhance instruction. Here is
a small portion of a clip from a Web-based module that provides
instruction on how to use an online quality management system that I
developed. Video clips like this one are embedded into the framework (user
interface) of the instructional presentation.
||Case Study Plan
||I prepared this plan
for investigating performance problems that resulted in a product failure.
Traditionally, in investigating causes of product nonconformities, quality
management systems have called for a root cause analysis to be performed. In
investigating root cause, quality practitioners generally first employ
statistical tools for process capability analysis and perform reevaluation
of tolerances on assemblies and parts to ferret out defects in the product
realization process. The qualitative case study approach to
investigating the cause of product nonconformity can serve two useful
purposes, one to determine what human factors may have caused the problem,
and secondly, when human factors have been ruled out, to identify areas
within the system as a starting point for quantitative analysis. Case study
research methods are very useful in helping practitioners to prescribe
interventions to achieve desired performances.
||I use questionnaires as a
data collection tool for analyzing and evaluating performance problems and
interventions. They are useful in diagnosing problems and determining the
kind of intervention that may be necessary to solve a performance problem.
For example, in developing training, they are very useful tools for
evaluating the participant's prior experience, attitudes, preferences, and
feelings. I also use questionnaires as a formative evaluation tool. The
example shown here was a tool I developed to gather data about
learners for a training program in quality management system auditing.
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